C.K.HEAUKULANI1, Z.YANG2, N.A.B.A.RASHID2, X.WANG1, T.BUDDHIKA1, Y.PHANG1, A.ONG1, W.MARTANTO1, R.J.T.MORRIS1, J.LEE2
MOH Office for Healthcare Transformation Pte Ltd1, Institute of Mental Health2
Digital phenotyping provides insights into an individual’s digital behaviours and have potential clinical utility. Here, we explore the association between digital biomarkers, from both a wrist wearable and smartphone, and clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
In this observational study, 54 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were issued a commercially available wrist wearable and smartphone. One week data on heart rate, sleep and physical activity were collected from the wrist wearable; travel patterns, sociability indices and taps were gathered from the smartphone. Clinical symptoms were assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and functioning on the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Correlational analyses between digital data and symptom severity were performed using correlational analyses.
Heart rate was positively correlated with Positive, Cognitive/Disorganization (Cog/Dis), Hostility and Depression/Anxiety (Dep/Anx) symptoms, and was inversely correlated with SOFAS. Physical activity was inversely correlated with Negative symptoms and positively correlated with SOFAS. Travel patterns, computed as radius of gyration, was inversely correlated with Negative and Dep/Anx symptoms, and was positively correlated with SOFAS. Text messages sent was inversely correlated with Negative symptoms. Tapping speed was negatively correlated with Negative and Depression symptoms and positively correlated with SOFAS. No significant associations between sleep features and symptom severity were found.
Our findings provide insights into the digital behaviours of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to clinical symptoms and functioning. Additionally, it highlights the potential of combining wrist wearables and smartphones as passive monitoring devices in schizophrenia.